Steady-state Theory

Steady-state theory

Was there a moment of creation for the universe, or has the universe always existed? The steady-state theory is a cosmological theory for the origin of the universe that suggests the universe has always existed and did not have a moment of creation. This theory was popular during the 1950s and 1960s, but because of observations made during the 1960s, few, if any, astronomers now think that the steady-state theory is correct. The basic tenet of the steady-state theory is that the universe on a large scale does not change with time (evolve). It has always existed and will always continue to exist looking much as it does now. The universe is, however, known to be expanding. To allow for this expansion in an unchanging universe, the authors of the steady-state theory postulated that hydrogen atoms appeared out of empty space. These newly created hydrogen atoms were just enough to fill in the gaps caused by the expansion. Because hydrogen is continuously being created, the steady-state theory is sometimes called the continuous creation theory. This theory achieved great popularity for a couple of decades, but mounting observational evidence caused its demise in the late 1960s. The discovery in 1965 of the cosmic background radiation provided one of the most serious blows to the steady-state theory.

Cosmological assumptions

The steady-state model is based on a set of four assumptions collectively known as the perfect cosmological principle. The first assumption is that physical laws are universal. Any science experiment, if performed under identical conditions, will have the same result anywhere in the universe because physical laws are the same everywhere in the universe. Second, on a sufficiently large scale the universe is homogeneous. We know there is large scale structure in the universe, such as clusters of galaxies; so, we assume that the universe is homogenous only on scales large enough for even the largest structures to average out. Third, we assume that the universe is isotropic, meaning that there is no preferred direction in the universe. Fourth, we assume that over sufficiently long times the universe looks essentially the same at all times.

Collectively, the first three of the above assumptions are the cosmological principle (not to be confused with the perfect cosmological principle). In a nutshell, the cosmological principle states that the universe looks essentially the same at any location in the universe. This principle remains a largely untested assumption because we cannot travel to every location in the universe to perform experiments to test the assumption. Adding the fourth assumption, that the universe does not change on the large scale with time, gives us the perfect cosmologi-cal principle. Essentially, the universe looks the same at all times as well as at all locations within the universe. The perfect cosmological principle forms the philosophical foundation for the steady-state theory. With the addition of the fourth assumption, the universe does not evolve in the steady-state theory, so observational evidence that the universe evolves would be evidence against the steady-state theory.

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